Correct planting of tomatoes

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Planting tomatoes has a lot to do with their future yield. It is important to choose a good place on the site, to prepare the soil. Another condition is compliance with the optimal distance when landing. Seedlings of tomatoes can be either purchased or grown independently.

Correct planting of tomatoes

Correct planting of tomatoes

Selection and preparation of the garden

Tomatoes are best planted after cabbage, onions, carrots, pumpkins, zucchini. It is not recommended to plant a tomato after other crops belonging to the Solanaceae family. Tomatoes can be affected by late blight and other common diseases. The soil should be neutral or slightly acidic, preferably sandy loam, good air permeability. You can not grow a crop in a too humid and shaded area: the fruits will be small, not too tasty, the bushes can infect diseases.

The beds for planting need to be prepared in the fall. The plot is well dug up, weeds are removed, then fertilizers are applied. For good growth of tomatoes you will need:

  • humus, humus or manure diluted with water 4-7 kg per 1 m²;
  • superphosphate - 40 g per 1 m²;
  • lime or wood ash - 700 g per 1 m².

Tatiana Orlova (Candidate of Agricultural Sciences):

Lime is applied only on acidic soils! On neutral and slightly alkaline ones, the introduction of lime causes the appearance of non-infectious chlorosis in all plants, including tomato, which manifests itself in the form of yellowing (or even whitening) of the upper leaves. The veins of the leaf remain green.

After the snow melts, you need to dig up the ground again, remove the remaining weeds. Approximately 10 days before planting, the soil must be loosened and fertilized again. This time, you will need 20 g per 1 m² of superphosphate and potassium fertilizer. Immediately before planting, you can apply 20-30 g per 1 m² of nitrogenous fertilizers.

Variety selection

The methods of planting tomato seedlings largely depend on the variety. It is customary to distinguish several varieties of tomatoes:

  • greenhouse;
  • varieties for open ground;
  • universal;
  • undersized;
  • tall;
  • standard;
  • early;
  • medium early;
  • late.

Greenhouse varieties can be sown on seedlings earlier, as they are less affected by frost. The planting distance for low-growing varieties may be shorter than for tall ones. When choosing a variety, it is very important to take into account the climatic zone, ripening time. The optimal vegetation period for central Russia is 100-105 days. For northern latitudes, it is better to choose early varieties. In the south, you can plant any tomatoes, including late ones.

Seedling preparation

Before talking about how to plant tomatoes correctly, you need to say about the preparation of the plants themselves. You can buy ready-made seedlings at the market or in the store. This option is practiced by those who have nowhere to grow bushes from seeds. In this case, you need to carefully examine the plants, whether there are any diseases or pests on them.It is advisable to study the characteristics of the varieties that you are going to buy.

Land preparation

If there is room in the house, you can easily grow tomatoes for planting. Sowing tomatoes is carried out in cardboard cups, plastic bottles or containers. The soil can be taken directly from the site where it is planned to plant bushes in the spring, or you can buy it. The second option is more acceptable, since the soil from ordinary gardens can be contaminated with fungi and bacteria.

The soil for planting needs to be prepared

The soil for planting needs to be prepared

It is recommended to mix turf, peat and humus for seedlings in a 1: 1: 1 ratio. 0.5 parts of sand is sometimes added to this soil. Substrates have proven themselves well: coconut, peat tablets. In the latter cases, the bushes are easier to transfer to the garden, they do not need to be removed from the tablet, it is enough just to place them in the ground on the site. Before sowing seeds, the soil and substrate must be roasted in the oven or scalded with boiling water to destroy fungi and bacteria. It is better to plant in new containers or disinfect old ones well.

Tatiana Orlova (Candidate of Agricultural Sciences):

The soil for growing seedlings should be light, porous, but nutritious. Ordinary garden soil taken from the garden, where adult plants grow beautifully, is not suitable for small seedlings. In the limited volume of the cup, it quickly turns sour or thickens.

Growing conditions

When sowing tomatoes for seedlings at home on the windowsill, you need to maintain the optimum temperature and humidity. Seedlings germinate best at a temperature of 25 ° C. The moisture content for seedlings should first be about 90% (containers for this are covered with a film), then it should be lowered to 60-70%. The seeds are sown in moist soil and not watered until the first shoots appear. They sprout 5-10 days after sowing.

You can grow tomato seedlings at home with or without a transplant, there is no single rule.

The culture tolerates picking well, but it takes time and effort. Some gardeners argue that replanting does not really affect yields. If you keep the plants on the windowsill, after the appearance of 3-4 real leaves, they need to be hardened by taking them out into the street.

Planting tomatoes in open ground or in a greenhouse is carried out 55-65 days after sowing. For this, only the best seedlings are selected.

Boarding time

When to plant tomatoes outdoors? At the time of picking, the seedlings should reach the age of 60-70 days, be strong and healthy. The date and time are highly dependent on the climate and weather conditions in a particular year. It is important that the soil temperature is not lower than 15 ° С, the optimal indicator is 20 ° С. You can measure the temperature with an ordinary household thermometer, lowering it into the ground by 8-10 cm.

Air temperature is no less important for tomato seedlings. During the day, it should be in the range of 20-22 ° С, and at night it should not fall below 15 ° С. At 12 ° C, the growing season of tomatoes stops. The culture is thermophilic - if there is a threat of frost, it is better to use a covering method of growing.

Landing times in different regions

The timing of planting tomatoes in the beds, depending on the climatic zone:

  • Southern regions - the third decade of April (early varieties), the second decade of May (mid-late varieties).
  • The middle zone of Russia (Moscow region, Leningrad region) - from mid-May to early June.
  • Northern regions (Ural, Siberia) - from early to mid-June.

If all planting dates are met, you can wait for a good harvest. It is also impossible to plant planting material in open ground too late: the fruits may not ripen, especially in cold climates. It is important to monitor the temperature after disembarkation. If the forecast portends frost, the plants are recommended to be covered with a film.

Tomato planting schemes

The planting scheme depends on the variety of tomato

The planting scheme depends on the variety of tomato

How to plant tomatoes in the garden? This question often arises among novice summer residents. There are several schemes, when choosing them, one should take into account the characteristics of the variety, the size of the bushes and the site itself.Planting technology may differ between greenhouse and open cultivation.

Ordinary landing in pits

In one row

The most popular option is the ordinary planting of tomatoes. With this method of planting tomatoes, holes are made in several rows, one bush is planted in each. The distance depends on the size of the bushes.

For undersized bush varieties:

  • the distance between the bushes is 30-35 cm;
  • the distance between the rows is 40-50 cm.

For tall varieties:

  • the distance between the bushes is 40-45 cm;
  • the distance between the rows is 50-60 cm.

In two rows

A variant of the ordinary landing is a two-line. The bushes are placed in paired rows (rows), large gaps are made between these pairs.

Distances of undersized varieties:

  • between bushes - 20-25 cm;
  • between the lines - 40 cm;
  • between pairs of lines - 50 cm.

Distances for tall varieties:

  • between the bushes - 30 cm;
  • between the lines - 60 cm;
  • between pairs of lines - 80 cm.

Nest landing

Another way to plant tomatoes is by using nests. The plot is divided into squares, measuring 80 × 80 cm. A hole is dug in the center of each square. A feature of this technology is that tomatoes are planted in several bushes in one hole. The only exceptions are some varieties:

  • undersized and tall varieties - 2-3 bushes per hole;
  • bushy varieties with a wide crown - 2 bushes per hole;
  • middle and late varieties - 1 bush per hole.

The nest planting is best suited for dry climates. Plants grow more crowded, the soil does not dry out so quickly, which allows you to reduce watering. The bushes are intertwined with roots, after which it is as if one plant is formed. This increases the yield, the fruits are large and tasty.

Tatiana Orlova (Candidate of Agricultural Sciences):

When growing seedlings in cassettes, the seedlings are easily removed from the cells along with the soil, because the roots tightly braid a clod of earth, preventing it from crumbling. The cassette seedlings easily take root in place, with almost no stress during transplanting.

Landing in spread

The technique is very convenient for large areas and greenhouses. First, a trench is dug about 10 cm deep. Then the seedlings are laid horizontally and buried in earth. The distance between rows and plants must be calculated in the same way as for a row planting in pits.

Landing in open ground

Now let's take a closer look at how to properly plant tomatoes in the ground. First you need to dig holes or a trench, 10-15 cm deep. Some gardeners advise you to do this 2-3 days before planting. At the bottom, you can put fertilizer (superphosphate, wood ash, humus, humus), and then pour water over the pit abundantly. It is important not to overdo it with top dressing: tomatoes do not like their excess. If the bed was fertilized in the fall and 10 days before planting, you can no longer add anything.

Planting is best done on a cloudy day.

Planting is best done on a cloudy day.

For planting, it is best to choose a slightly cloudy day, there may even be light rain. It is important that before this the seedlings are properly hardened, carefully selected. All weak and diseased plants should be discarded. To harden the pots with tomatoes, 2-3 weeks before the dive into the ground, they begin to take out into the air, first for 10-15 minutes, then for a couple of hours, all day. On the day of transplantation, they are left there for a day.

Seedlings are carefully removed from the containers where they grew, so as not to damage the roots. If peat tablets were used for growing at home, there is no need to free the roots from the soil. It is correct to plant such tomatoes directly in the substrate. Only 4-5 leaves should remain on the stems of the tomatoes, the extra ones are removed from the bottom. It is advisable to plant purchased planting material on the day it was purchased. If this is not possible, the roots of the seedlings are wrapped in a wet rag. They must be planted no later than 2-3 days later.

The hole is watered with a small amount of water immediately before planting, then bushes are placed in it at an angle of 45 ° or horizontally. On top of the plants, soil is poured and lightly tamped.If the soil is dry, you can water the tomatoes with a little water. You can also organize drip irrigation of the entire garden with a hose.

Planting in a greenhouse

How to plant tomatoes in a greenhouse? The technology is practically the same as in the open field. It is important to properly prepare the soil for tomatoes, organize watering. The technique has its own secrets.

Soil preparation

They begin to prepare the earth in the fall. Humus or humus is introduced into it. A humus feeding method that works well for indoor use:

  • remove the top layer of soil about 20 cm thick;
  • dig a groove;
  • take a three-year-old humus (it can be cooked in a barrel or compost pit);
  • fill the ditch with humus by half and cover the bed with the removed layer of earth.

In the spring, such a bed is dug up and loosened.

In early spring, it is useful to stay in a greenhouse for earthworms. They form a very useful substance for plants - humus. The worm passes through itself the earth, the remains of plants, insects. The output is a fermented natural fertilizer. In addition, worms dig holes in the ground, loosen the soil and enrich it with oxygen.

Earthworm settlement rules:

  • stock up on worms at the rate of 5-10 individuals per 1 m²;
  • dig holes in the ground and place 2-3 worms in each;
  • cover the hole with earth;
  • water the area with a hose.

It is important to cover the greenhouse with plastic wrap. If the worms do not have time to dig deeply into the ground, they will die in the frost.

Planting tomatoes

Planting tomatoes in a greenhouse is carried out 1-2 weeks earlier than in an open garden. The technique is almost the same as on a regular garden bed. More often it is recommended to use the trench method in greenhouses. If the variety is tall or the seedlings are large, you can use the snake method:

  • dig a hole about 25 cm deep;
  • add to the resulting earth a handful of wood ash, 2-3 kg of humus, 1 tbsp each. l. phosphate and potash fertilizers;
  • mix the earth;
  • peel the lower part of the stem of the seedling so that 4-5 leaves remain;
  • spread the stem into the hole so that it twists like a snake (hence the name of the method);
  • carefully sprinkle the planting material with a mixture of earth and fertilizers, tamp;
  • water the entire area with a hose.

It is important to ensure good watering of the plants in the greenhouse, because natural moisture does not enter there. It is best to equip a special drainage system. If this is not possible, a hose should be brought to the greenhouse. It is important to keep an eye on moisture: overflow is harmful to tomatoes In conditions of high humidity, pests easily settle in the greenhouse. Before planting tomatoes there, be sure to disinfect all structures and soil.

Care after landing

Planting any tomatoes correctly is just the first step to getting a good harvest. For plants to develop, they need to be looked after. When the seedlings take root and begin to stretch upward, they need to be tied to a support. Sometimes a combined cultivation of two crops is used. Corn is planted between the rows of tomatoes, then the bushes are tied to strong stalks of the cereal. This method is suitable for southern regions. In the north, corn will shade the tomatoes.

After 2-3 weeks, tomatoes are fed. For this, 25 g of nitrogenous, 40 g of phosphate and 15 g of potassium fertilizer are diluted in a bucket of water. 600-700 ml of solution is poured under each plant. Water the bushes as needed. Most often this is done 3-4 times a week. If it rains, watering is reduced to once a week.

In order for the tomatoes to ripen well, some of the leaves are removed from the bushes in the northern regions. In the south, this procedure is not done, since the foliage protects the fruits from the bright sun. It is important to watch out for pests and fungi on the bushes. For prevention, prophylactic treatment of tomatoes with infusion of garlic, tobacco or fungicides is carried out. After harvesting, all the tops are taken from the garden so as not to infect the soil. Before planting tomatoes in the same place another time, you need to maintain a three-year interval.

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